Cultural Practice

Quick Facts

Location: Bounded on the north by Misamis Oriental, on the south by North Cotabato and Davao del Sur, on the east by Agusan del Sur, and on the west by Lanao del Sur.

Land Area: 1,049,859 hectares (Source: Land Management Bureau)

Capital: Malaybalay City

Number of Cities/Municipalities: 2 Cities and 20 Municipalities

Population: 1,190,284 (NSO 2007 Survey)


Major Products: Bukidnon is the country's major producer of rice, corn, sugar, banana, coffee, rubber, cassava as well as pineapple, tomato and other fruits and vegetables. Recognized by the Food and Agriculture Organization as a foot-and-mouth-disease-free province, it is also a major producer of chicken, hogs and cattle. Flowers and floriculture abound, as its biodiversity and endemic species of flora and fauna is one of the richest in the country.


Major Industries: Del Monte Phils Inc., Dole Philippines, Inc., Lapanday Diversified Products Corporation, Southern Fresh Products, Inc., Celebrate Life Agri-ventures Philippines, Inc., NAture's Organic Fresh Pineapple, Inc., Manupali Agri-Development Corp., Agrinanas Development Corporation, Jikka Fruits, Inc., Bukidnon Highland Farms, Mt. Kitanglad Agri-Development Corporation, and Mt. Kitanglad Agri-Ventues, Incorporated.



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People and Society

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Political Subdivision

Bukidnon is subdivided into three (3) congressional districts. It consists of 464 barangays in 2 component cities and 20 municipalities.


District I - comprised 8 municipalities (with a total of 135 barangays) namely: Baungon (16 Barangays), Talakag (29), Libona (14), Manolo Fortich (22), Malitbog (11), Sumilao (10), Kalilangan (14), and Pangantucan (19).


District II - composed of 4 municipalities and 2 component cities, the City of Malaybalay which is the capital of the province and the City of Valencia, and covers 143 barangays. These are Impasugong (13 Barangays), City of Malaybalay (46), City of Valencia (31), Lantapan (14), Cabanglasan (15), and San Fernando (24).


District III - located in the southern portion of Bukidnon, is composed of 8 municipalities and accounts for the remaining 186 barangays in the province. Maramag (20 Barangays), Quezon (31), Don Carlos (29), Kitaotao (35), Dangcagan (14), Kibawe (23), Kadingilan (17), and Damulog (17).  






The August 2007 census count placed the population of Bukidnon at 1,190,284 individuals. This population constitutes 30.12% of Region X population which reached 3,952,437; and, 1.34% of 88,574,614, the total population of the country.


The current (2007) 1,190,284 total population of the province represents a 12.26% increase over the year 2000 total residents of 1,060,265. Increasing economic opportunities in the province that attract investors, as well as migrants, are the key factors that influence population growth.


The City of Valencia obtained the highest population at 162,745 or 13.67% of the total provincial population. The capital, City of Malaybalay, came in second highest with a population of 144,065 or 12.10% of the Bukidnon populace.


Among the twenty (20) municipalities of the province, Quezon hits the most population at 91,119 which equates to 7.66% of the total population, while Maramag and Manolo Fortich came close to it at 85,647 (7.20%) and 82,051 (6.89%) respectively. Damulog register the lowest at 21,183 or 1.78% of the total Bukidnon count with Dangcagan coming in very closely at 21,254 population accounting to 1.79% of the total populace. 

Clik here to view the table of Total Population per City_Municipality  or copy and paste this link to your address bar Population per City_Municipality.pdf 





Of the total household population in Bukidnon, more than 95% are Filipinos. Among the foreign residents include the British, Americans, Indonesians, Chinese and Koreans. Some of these foreigners are engaged in business and trade, others stay for study-research, mission work and/or tourism.



Languages and Dialects 


The most spoken dialect by members of the households in the Province is Cebuano. Other dialects spoken are Bisaya, Hiligaynon/Ilonggo and Bukidnon/Binukid.



Religious Affiliation


Religion is a highly important social element in the lives of the people of Bukidnon. More than three fourths of the population are Roman Catholics. However, other Christian groups are also growing in number. Among them are the Seventh Day Adventist, the Association of the Fundamental Baptist Church in the Philippines, Iglesia Ni Cristo and Aglipay.



Peace and Order Condition


The province enjoys relative peace and prosperity held up mainly by its strong political leadership that continually seeks to uphold law and order, maintain peace, impose discipline, and foster unity despite the cultural diversity of its people.


An important part in the preservation of peace and order in the province was the successful partnership of the LGUs with the Philippine National Police (PNP) and the Philippine Army (PA). The Provincial and City/Municipal Peace & Order Councils were also established and implemented. 


The continuous conduct of police visibility in crime prone areas and more aggressive Internal Security Operations (ISO) campaign are efforts geared toward curbing the crime incidence in the province. Mobile checkpoints are also put in place to deter movements of the criminal elements. The REACT 166 is implemented in all cities and municipalities of the province. Likewise, PATROL 117 is also implemented in the cities of Malaybalay and Valencia. 



The Traditional People of Bukidnon


Bukidnon, rich in cultural and ethnic heritage, has drawn its roots from primarily two broad ethnic identities before the Martial Law era – the Bukidnons and Manobos.  


The Bukidnons are the native speakers of the Binukid language and are said to have inhabited the lowlands and plains of Bukidnon. The Manobos are said to have occupied the mountains and highlands. Thus, between the two, the Bukidnons have come to gain a much higher level of advancement as they became socially integrated with the Christians and other cultural influences than the Manobos who are known to have always retreated to the mountains and to have been wary of cultural subjugation and even contact with Christians and the lowlanders.  


Nowadays, when we speak of the Bukidnons, we give due reference and homage, not only to the one tribe in Bukidnon but to the seven Bukidnon tribes whose coming together has been relived, remembered, and celebrated through the “Kaamulan Festival”. They are: the Bukidnons (people from the lowlands), Tigwahanuns (people along the Tigwa river), Umayamnuns (the inhabitants along the Umayam river amidst the Pantaran mountains), Talaandigs (people from Talakag, Songco, Kibangay and Basak), Higaonons (people who come from Agusan), and the Manobos (people whose spread has been noted to be great in Kalilangan, Pangantucan, Kitaotao, Kibawe, Kadingilan, Don Carlos and Quezon). Matigsalugs (people along the Salug river),These tribes of people are bearers of the wealth of ethnic, cultural, spiritual and social diversity of Bukidnon. 



The Bukidnons


The Bukidnons is an ethnic tribe in Northcentral Mindanao whose ancestors were the aborigines of the coastal places of what is now the province of Misamis Oriental (Clotet, 1889).Their major means of subsistence are food gathering and swidden agriculture.The women are skilled in making appliqué and embroidering garments. The Bukidnons speak the Binukid dialect. They have light brown complexion, straight black hair; have an average height of about five feet. Their nose bridge is not flat (NCIP, 2003).The IPs who simply identify themselves as Bukidnon are mostly found in the northern part of the province. They specifically inhabited the lower slopes of the mountains of Sumilao, around Malaybalay and those lowland areas of Central Bukidnon. Courtships and marriages among the Bukidnons are brought about by parental arrangements made since the children were eleven years old. Men practice polygamy but the women are expected to be monogamous. Marriage is done by exchanging betel with molded rice.Bukidnons art is best expressed in their dances, poetry and music, mat weaving, and basketry. The Bukidnon musical instruments consist of bamboo flutes, bamboo Jew's harp, one-stringed violin, and the boatshaped guitar.The Bukidnon handicrafts consist of mats, hats, fishtraps, and cloth weaving. The traditional method of farming is still being practiced by the farmers in planting palay, corn, sugarcane, pineapple, coffee, cassava, abaca, and vegetables.



The Higaonons


The term Higaonon means "people of the wilderness". The term is derived from the native word "gaon" which means literally put away either from fire, heat of the sun or from the water. Hence, the Higaonon are basically the coastal dwellers who moved to the uplands (mountains). They are somewhat nomadic, that is, they travel from one mountain village to another, looking for more fertile soil and better harvest.


The Higaonon people are of medium built with average height of about 5 feet and 2 inches, they are of lighter skin complexion compared to the other tribes in the province. Quiet a number of them have a very recognizable European features, aquiline nose, deep-set eyes and prominent cheeks, a legacy of the intermarriage between the natives and the Spanish colonizers.


The higaonon have unwritten laws called Buncatol Ha Bulawan and their oral tradition is Pasig Ha Sumagubay (Opena, 1982). According to Tajonera (2003) the Higaonons are among the least known ethnolinguistic groups that inhabit north-central Mindanao. The Higaonons have their own system of writing. Their myths and legend speak of a great ancestor named "Suwat" who kept a list of the people who were living and dead during the great flood that took place long ago.


The political system of the Higaonon revolves around a datu. There is usually a principal datu who rule over an entire group composed of several units that are each headed by minor datus. These minor datus form a counseling body for the whole community. The datu assumes multiple roles in the community. He is supposed to be the wisest and bravest among his people.


With the practice of polygamy in Higaonon society, the kinship has a patrilateral bias. The husband maintains systematic supervisions over his wives who, nowadays, average three to a household, live with him under a single roof. Children are considered equal. No discrimination is made between those of the first marriage or those from later marriages. Any child grows up as one born into a monogamous family.


Marriage is arranged mainly by the parents of the boy and girl. The arrangement is a long and tedious process. Prior to the wedding, the boy must live in the girl's house for about a year to prove his worth).



The Talaandigs


The Talaandigs are one of the indigenous groups in the province of Bukidnon, who has continued to preserve and promote its indigenous customs, beliefs and practices despite the strong influx modernization and change. This groups is found in barangays and municipalities surrounding the mountain of Kitanglad specifically in the towns of Lantapan and Talakag (Talamdan, 2001).


The belief on the existence of the highest God called Magbabaya and the spirits who guard and protect nature is minfested in the social, economic and political aspects of the life of the Talandig. Thus, when the Talaandig establishes a farm, he performs the Talabugta and Ibabasuk rituals, after harvest, he performs the Pamamahandi for the thanksgiving, for the recognition of the superior leadership, he performs the Panagulambung, when he goes hunting, the Punaliket and palayag, and for a higher form of socio-economic and political activity, the Talaandig performs the Kaliga ceremony.


The belief of the Talaandig on the existence of gods and spirits is also reflected in the protection of the house. These include Dadagunan hu Suguy who guards the laws of the house: Anilaw ha Sumagda who guards the door, Sinyuda Kahibunan who keeps the hall, Diwata ha Mailib who records the activity of peole inside the house and Diwata Pinatanlay who guards the house at the ridge of the roof.


According to Tajonera (2003) marriage is the most significant basis of Talaandig kinship. Before arranging marriage, the consanguinity and affinity relationships of contracting parties are determined as basis for settling the appropriate customary laws and procedures. During marriage, counseling is established as guideline to preserve relationship. This is carried out in the observance of the Bayluwa custom where each of the couple is instructed to tell problems related to their relationships as husband and wife only to their parent-in-laws. This custom provides smooth relationship with-in-laws who have the parental authority to discipline their own children.


In Talaandig kinship terms, a father is called Amay; a mother, Inay; a brother, suled; a sister, atubay. Uncle is called Aba or Abang. An aunt is called Ida or Idang. Apu is a general term grandparent. Parent-in-laws are called Ugang. A son-in-law is called Maamong while a daughter in law is called Lagambay.


The Talaandig learning system is embodied in various forms of oral tradition. This tradition includes the narratives called Nanangen, epic called Ulaging, poetic songs called sala and songs called Idangdang. Limbay are particular songs about animals.

The long historical narrative Talaandig is called Gugud. It is considered sacred because it relates to the existence of the gods and spirits at the time of creation. A Talandig story to recall is called Batbat while a reference story is called Sampitan while a brain twister or riddle of the Talandig is called Antuka.


The Talaandig has two methods of healing illness. One is through a religious ceremony. Another is through the application of traditional herbal medicine.


The Talaandig are known to be dwellers of the steep places. They are the people of the slopes (andig). These IPs who ascribed themselves as Talaandig are mostly found in Lantapan and Talakag.


Both the Talaandig and Higaonon indigenous communities claimed Mt. Kitanglad as their sacred "temple" and ancestral home. They believed that the forest was the source of life because it served all of their needs: wild animals for food; medicinal plants to cure illnesses; timber for house construction; and rattan to make baskets and other crafts. They chose an area within the forest as hunting reserve. The wild animals were allowed to propagate and multiply. Hunters were selective and conservative in numbers of animals that they killed.



The Matigsalug


According to Opena (1982) the Matigsalug are mostly small in stature with dark brown complexion and curly hair. Traditional wear is a long sleeved jacket with knee length pants and head gears embellished with horse's hair and beads for men. Women wear mid-length blouses with a skirt and strands of beads attached to wooden disks on their ears. Their clothes are colorfully embroidered with geometric patterns.


The life of an animistic revolves around a spirit world. They maintain that spirits live in water, land, trees, and rocks. Tragedies like illnesses, drought and death are caused by angry spirits. Events like planting crops and revenge-taking (called "pangayaw") are preceded by rituals. Life is preoccupied with appeasing the spirits by offering sacrifices. Eggs, rice, corn, coins bracelets, anklets and betel nuts are placed on an altar, and the Datu, while calling on the spirits, slits the throat of a chicken and offers the blood. It is very difficult to convince people who been practicing such things for many generations that it is wrong.


The name "Matigsalug" is a construction of Matig and Salug. Matig means from (a place of origin or residence) in various Filipino languages, followed by the specific place of origin or residence. Hence, Matigsalug means from Salug (River). The Matigsalug epic Ulod, provided a definite identity of these IPs which was documented by Manuel(1956).



The Tigwahanon


The Tigwahanon Manobo are found along the watershed of Tigwa River in the place where the municipality of San Fernando is located namely in the following places, Tugop, Little Bagiou, Kumawas, Halapitan, Iglusad, Bunacao, Katipunan, Kiboncog, Namnam, Matimbus, Sabangan, Lumbayao, and Don Cesar plain; Kalagutay, Palacpacan, Dao, Tag-alas-as and Abehid.


The catch and games in these communal food getting are equally shared that even the unborn child in his mother's womb gets a share as long as the mother has done her share of participation in the communal fishing and hunting.


The giving of equal share to unborn child reflects the esteem and value that these people gave to the human person by making the unborn child have equal rights with the adult human being. This is how much the Tigwahanon values human life.


These people have tree houses called batangan built among the branches of a growing tree with the tree trunk as its solitary post. Their fishing implements are bu-o (bamboo fish traps) in varied forms they have learned to fish using hook and line called banowit.


The staples are rice during harvest time, occasional corn grits are available and most of the year round they subsist on camote (sweet potato) and other crops like cassava.


The Tigwahanon are scattered all over the Municipality of San Fernando in Bukidnon close to the border of Davao del Norte. The term Tigwahanon may have been derived from the Tigwa River where the Tigwahanon inhabits its banks and watersheds (NCIP, 2003).



The Umayamnon


These Indigenous peoples dwell along the watershed of Umayam River in the Mountains of Pantaron in the Eastern side of the province of Bukidnon. They are fair in complexion five feet or above in height. Their eyes are set closed enough to each other with an average height of nose bridge. They are proud and reserved people.


The Umayamnon is synonymous to fierceness for their group is regarded as warlike and forest experts. But according to Opena (1982), these people are just suspicious and wary of strangers for whenever there are crimes committed in places that are easily reached by law enforcing agencies, the criminals often flee to the Umayam region hence criminals are often hunted in Umayam and almost always these hunts are futile.


They chew betel nut very frequently and their teeth are filed to uniform length which are mostly blackened. Purposes for making the teeth black are two namely: for medicinal purposes and for decoration. The black dye that they used to blacken the teeth means one distinction of being a human (who knows how to dye his teeth black) for according to them only monkeys have white teeth. Umayamnon are excellent makers of bead jewelry like the necklaces called ginakit and inboy, beautiful beaded men's bag called suning and unisex beaded bracelets called binuklad.


The Umayamnon traces their kinds bilaterally, that is the blood relations of both father and mother are esteemed as close relatives. Reciprocal roles are expected from them like helping raise a ransom or a bride price, sharing games or catch for the day or participating in a communal field clearing the kagsakum.



The Manobo


According to Opena (1985), Manobo is a generic term which refers to people who are still in the subsistence level economy and are generally in the mountains and who practice the slash and burn agriculture. Further she qualified that the term Manobo is very derogatory for it connotes to be backward, uncivilized, ignorant, boisterous, unwashed, unkept, rough and lawless. Hence, she opined that the use of the term must be used with discreetness, tact and prudence. The term can also mean a slave (magdul) or a person destined to do all the menial jobs in the house and farm.


According to Elkins (1977) the Manobo belongs to the original stock of proto-Philippines or proto-Austronesian people who came from South China thousands of years ago. He later coined the term Manobo to designate the stock of aboriginal non-negeritoid people of Mindanao. They mostly inhabit the hinterlands of Bukidnon specifically on the boundaries of Agusan, Bukidnon, Cotabato, Davao and Misamis Oriental (NCIP,2003).


The Western Manobos are in the Southwestern part of Bukidnon in Mulita, Kalilangan and Pangantucan. These people speak a quaint language with Marawi influence which cannot be understood by other ethnic groups in Bukidnon.


Marriage is traditionally by parental arrangement, which begins when each of the two families chooses a spokesperson, preferably a datu or bai, who is known for eloquence and knowledge of custom law. Marriage is an alliance system in which reciprocity and mutual obligation between the groom's and bride's kinship groups are expected. It is, therefore, a means of maintaining peace and order, for the Manobo's practice of retaliation does not extend to one's kindred or allies.


Poligamy, although rarely practiced, was allowed. A datu might resort to it, usually for economic and political reasons. Several wives allowed for more foelds that could be cultivated, since the Manobo women did all the work in the fields. Poligamy also multiplied one's alliances and expanded them to several communities. However, they could take another wife only if the first wife and her parents consented. The first wife remained the head wife.


Traditional fabric for clothes was abaca or hemp, weaved by the ikat process, but is now cotton cloth obtained through trade. Dyes were acquired from plants and trees. Ginuwatan are inwoven representational designs such as flowers. If cotton trade cloth is bought, big floral designs are preferred. Typical colors are red, black, yellow, green, blue and white. Manobo ancestors had blankets of abaca fiber which were linetungan if these had multicolored design, and bayas if plain white.


About Bukidnon

The Province of Bukidnon is located at the center of Mindanao Island, southern part of the Philippines. It is a landlocked province bounded on the North by the City of Cagayan de Oro, on the South by North Cotabato and Davao City, on the East by Agusan del Sur and Davao del Norte, and on the West by Lanao del Norte and Lanao del Sur.

Occupying a wide plateau in the North Central part of Mindanao, Bukidnon has a progressive agriculture-based economy. It is a major producer of rice, corn, sugar, coffee, rubber, pineapple, tomato, flowers, cassava, and other fruits and vegetables. It is also a major producer of chicken, hogs, and cattle. Having the biggest agricultural area with soils and climate highly suited to agriculture, Bukidnon is the main source of agricultural products and raw materials that feeds the processing plants within the province and the major processing centers of the region. Hence, Bukidnon is tagged as the region’s “Food Basket”.

Bukidnon is also labelled as the highland paradise in the heart of Mindanao. While it derived its name from the Visayan term “bukid” for “mountain”, it is predominantly a rolling grassland plateau with an average elevation of 915 meters. The rolling uplands, deep canyons and valleys alternating with the low plains create a refreshing vista for dwellers and travellers alike.

Bukidnon is relatively cool and moist throughout the year. The refreshing cool climate in the Bukidnon plateau is attributed to its fairly high altitude.

Not only is Bukidnon endowed with natural attractions, the province's terrain is characterized by deep ravines and dense forest mountains which protect the province from storms. Bukidnon is also typhoon-free.

The mountain ranges, namely, Mt. Kimangkil Range, Pantaron Range, Mt. Tangkulan Range, Mt. Tago Range, Mt. Kalatungan Range Natural Park and Mt. Kitanglad Range Natural Park contain the remaining tropical rainforests of Bukidnon. These mountain ranges host several watersheds that are vital to the ecological and economic balance of Mindanao. Aside from being the homeland of the indigenous peoples (IPs), these ranges are also the habitat of critically endangered, economically important and endemic fauna (like the Philippine Eagle, the second largest bird in the world) and flora (such as the Rafflesia, known as world’s giant flower). Mt. Kitanglad, the highest mountain in the ranges, towering at 2,938 meters (9,639 feet), is second only to Mount Apo among the country’s peaks.

Physical Feature and Composition

A. Location

Bukidnon is a landlocked province; acclaimed as the highland paradise in the heart of Mindanao. It occupies the extensive plateaus in North-Central Mindanao that is bounded on the north and northeast by Misamis Oriental; on the East by Agusan Province; on the south and southeast by Davao Province; and on the west and southwest by Lanao and Davao Provinces.
Bukidnon lies between the parallels 7o 21’ to 8o 35’ north latitude and the meridians 124o 03’ to 125o 16’ east longitude. The capital of the Province, the City of Malaybalay, is about 850 kilometers by air from Manila and 91 kilometers by road from Cagayan de Oro City.

B. Watershed, Rivers and Lakes

Being relatively elevated and centrally located, the Province is itself a “watershed” for much of North-Central Mindanao comprising the headwaters and substantial portions of seven major river catchments originating in the Province. These are the Pulangi Watershed (361,678 ha); Tagoloan Watershed (177,043 ha); Cagayan Watershed (110,077 ha); Muleta Watershed (68,294 ha); Maridugao Watershed (52,166 ha); Salug Watershed (38,830ha); and the Cugman-Agusan Watershed (21,290 ha).
Two of these watersheds have direct inter-regional implications. The Pulangi River is the Rio Grande of Mindanao and shared with Region 11 and ARMM. It currently provides water to the Pulangi Hydro Power IV and soon the Pulangi Hydro Project V. The other river, the Salug River, has its watershed in Bukidnon. The river catchments area is currently used as aquifer for Davao City.
Aside from the relatively important river systems, various lakes also dot the landscape of the province. The three most notable are the Pinamaloy Lake in Don Carlos, the Napalit Lake in Pangantucan, and Lake Apo in Valencia City. Maramag basin is a man-made lake, a result of the construction of a huge dam for the National Power Corporation Hydro-Electric Power Plant in Maramag. 

C. Plateaus and Mountain Ranges

The province is also blessed with beautiful and important mountain ranges: Mt. Kimangkil Range, Pantaron Range, Mt. Tankulan Range, Mt. Tago Range, Mt. Kalatungan Range Natural Park and Mt. Kitanglad Range Natural Park.
Mt. Kitanglad Range Natural Park has been declared as protected area pursuant to Republic Act 8978 also known as the Mt. Kitanglad Range Protected Area Act of 2000; while Mt. Kalatungan Range Natural Park, tagged as the sister of Mt. Kitanglad Range, is proclaimed as such per Presidential Proclamation No. 305 also in the year 2000.
Well known is the Mount Kitanglad Range Natural Park which boasts the second highest peak in the country, Mount Dulang-dulang and its more popular peak, Mount Kitanglad. The range has a sloping gradient that peaks at 2,938 meters above sea level and occupies the central portion of Bukidnon. The whole eastern and southern borders adjoining the Provinces of Agusan, Davao and Cotabato, are lofty and densely forested mountains.
Although, the province has lofty mountains, the greater part is a gently rolling grassland plateau cut by deep and wide canyons of the Cagayan, Pulangi and Tagoloan Rivers and their tributaries. At Mailag, 23 kilometers south of Malaybalay, the plateau begins to descend and gradually merges into the lowlands of Cotabato province.
D. Climate
Due to its elevation and mountainous physiography, the climate of Bukidnon is relatively cool and moist throughout the year. 
Bukidnon is outside the typhoon belt and has two distinct climate types. The central and southern portions are more influenced by the southwest monsoon and most fourth type or intermediate B, that is, no very pronounced maximum rain period and no dry seasons. Rains are very frequent, almost daily for the rest of the year. The climate in the northern portion is also influenced by the northeast monsoon and reflects the third type or intermediate A characteristics wherein, no very pronounced maximum rain period with short dry season lasting only for one to three months is experienced.
E. Land Area and Classification 
i. Land Area
Bukidnon has an area of 1,049,859 hectares or 10,498.59 sq. km. as certified by the DENR-Land Management Bureau. It is the largest province in Region 10 and the eighth largest in the country in terms of land area.
ii. Land Classification
Thirty eight percent (38%) of the total land area of Bukidnon is alienable and disposable; while the remaining sixty-two percent (62%) are classified forestland.

An estimate of 92% of the total alienable and disposable land is devoted to agricultural crops.  

Forestland consist the majority of the land area of the province, allocated at 507,802 hectares. The forestland is broken down into protection forest and production areas.
The protection forest of 195,517.25 hectares consists of the National Integrated Protected Areas System (NIPAS) area, the military reserved area, river/creek allowance and the virgin forest. A total hectarage of 53,535 is considered virgin forests. 
The production forest of 312,284.75 hectares comprises the tenured (300,011.94 hectares) and untenured forest areas (12,272.81 hectares).  
iii. Vegetative Cover
The province vegetative cover which is at the same time covered by the forestall areas are distinctively classified into forested and non-forested areas. Forested area estimated at 227,062 hectares comprises the old growth forest, residual forest, mossy forest, and forest plantation. Non-forested area is estimated at 280,740 hectares which includes the brushland and open cultivated/grassland.
F. Mineral Resources
The Province has several natural deposits, such as gold, chromites, copper, manganese, quartz, white clay and limestone.
Among the minerals available and authorized for exploration includes limestone, chromite, feldspar, copper, silica quartz and gold. Mining operations are also regulated. 


G. Ancestral Land
As per report submitted by the Office of the National Commission on Indigenous Peoples, there were three (3) certificates of ancestral domain titles already issued within the municipalities of Kitaotao, Talakag and Quezon covering an area of 102,234.82 hectares, 11,105.57 hectares and 8,571.20 hectares respectively.
Aside from the three (3) ancestral domain titles issued, two (2) certificates of ancestral domain titles are still on process. These are located in Siloo, Malitbog and Tigbawan, Malaybalay City, and both areas contain 257.20 hectares each. Other eight (8) applications for ancestral domain titles in the areas of Impasugong, Cabanglasan, Malitbog and Malaybalay City are still on process, totalling the area applied for title to 60,215 hectares.
In the identification of physical boundaries, the community elders were made to participate and take part in giving oral historical accounts. Such participation from these esteemed tribal leaders manifests Government efforts at keeping astride their welfare in the matter of identifying ancestral domains and showing respect upon the people of the indigenous community. 

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